Nests made of papertermites
Nests of some termites are made of carton-like material, created from wood, saliva, and excreta.
Upper Riccarton Community and School LibraryWarren and Mahoney Limited
Building actively and passively adapts to changing conditions.
Durable casing built with sandprotozoans
The protoplasm of a protozoan, Difflugia, incorporates sand and other particulate materials into an exterior casing by migrating the materials through its protoplasm and joining them with an organic cement.
Mound facilitates gas exchangemound-building termites
The structure of above-ground macrotermite mounds facilitates gas exchange in the below-ground nest using internal air currents driven by solar heat.
Mounds increase diversitymound-building termites
The mounds created by some termites increase diversity in wetlands because they form 'islands,' supporting trees and other species during the wet season.
Matrix produces strong structural materialsflax
Fibers produced by the flax plant provide strength by being extensively cross-linked composites of cellulose, pectin, and protein in a long, tube-like architecture.
Mixture waterproofs nestspaper wasps
Paper wasps use an oral secretion combined with masticated plant matter to create waterproof paper nests.
Back resists wear and teardesert scorpion
The exoskeleton of the desert scorpion resists wear due to multiple coupling effects of surface morphology, material, and flexibility.
Squeezing larvae provides glueweaver ants
Weaver ants glue their nests together using silk squeezed from their larvae.