Directional Waterproof FabricsNikwax
Waterproofing without toxic perfluorinated compounds
Walls keep insect feet from stickingpitcher plants
The internal walls of pitcher plants prevent insects from escaping by clogging their feet with a flaky, waxy substance and being rough.
Pitcher rims are extremely slipperyTropical Pitcher Plants
Rims of the pitcher plant are extremely slippery due to a liquid film overlaying a microtextured surface.
Paws have non-slip grippolar bears
The paws of polar bears grip ice well due to the rough surface of their pads.
Viscoelastic mucus enables locomotionbanana slug
The foot of a banana slug generates a propulsive force against surfaces via mucus secretions that act as both a lubricant and an adhesive.
Skin protects from dehydrationfile snake
The skin of file snakes protects from dehydration because it is hygroscopic, absorbing moisture from the air.
Organs serve multiple adhesive functionscamel spider
Suctorial organs at the tips of special appendages on camel spiders serve multiple adhesive functions, including prey capture, via dry adhesion.
Skin exhibits low frictionsandfish skink
Skin of the sandfish skink exhibits abrasion resistance and low friction when moving through sand due to proteinaceous scales.
Bubble net system to catch fish
Net-less system to catch fish
Petals self-clean without being slipperyPlants, Wild pansy
Petals of pansy flowers maintain self-cleaning without sacrificing grip because of cone-shaped cells.
Adhesive foot pads self-cleanInsects
Adhesive hairy foot pads on insects self-clean more efficiently than smooth pads because hair tips reduce the area for particle attachment.