Concertina movement navigates tunnelssnakes
Some snakes move by passing one or two curves down their bodies (concertina movement) using scales to apply pressure points.
Limbs dig efficientlyechigo mole
Echigo moles and other digging animals break the soil surface and move as much earth as possible per stroke with short, powerful limbs and sharp claws.
Screw-and-nut leg joint assists climbingPapuan weevil
Screw-and-nut leg joint of the Papuan weevil allows rotational movement combined with single axis translation.
Skin changes colorchameleons
The skin of the chameleon rapidly changes color via active adjustment of nanocrystal structures beneath pigment cells
Reflector causes color and surface changetortoise beetle
The exoskeleton of the tortoise beetle changes color and reflective properties due to a chirped multilayer reflector filled with grooves that fill and empty of fluid to cover and reveal, respectively, the bottommost layer.
Optical metamaterialsMarine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole (Roger Hanlon)
Project Squid Skin: Perceive light, change color.
Rapid color change used for protectioncuttlefish
The skin of cuttlefish changes color rapidly, in order to evade predators, using elastic pigment sacs called chromatophores.
Pigment granules assist hidingray-finned fish
Skin of ray-finned fish changes color in response to light levels and patterns via movement of granules in pigment cells.
Wing scales cause light to diffract and interfereMorpho butterflies
Wings of Morpho butterflies create color by causing light waves to diffract and interfere.
Butterfly wing scale photonicsUniversity of Cambridge NanoPhotonics Centre
From butterflies' wings to bank notes - how nature's colors could cut bank fraud.
Microstructures produce iridescent colorshummingbird
The feathers of hummingbirds are iridescent due to the inhomogeneous interference structure of platelets on feather barbules.
Temporary chemical signals guide otherssolitary bees
Some species of bees send signals to other bees via temporary scent marks.