Body protected from diving impactbrown pelican
The body of the brown pelican is protected from impact during plunge-diving thanks to subcutaneous air-sacs.
Intricate silica architecture survives forcesdiatoms
Silica-based skeletons of microscopic diatoms offer significant resistance to impact forces due to symmetry, pores, nanospheres, and ribs.
Web absorbs impactsspiders
Webs of araneid spiders absorb impacts via microscopic engineering.
Pads cushion feetmammals
The foot pads of many mammals provide cushioning using hydrostatic structures, essentially working as fluid-filled cushions.
Seeds survive extreme fallsBrazil nut tree
The seeds of a Brazil nut tree can survive long falls without damage due to the reinforced triple layer pod encasing them.
Appendage strikes with amplified speedmantis shrimp
The raptorial appendage of the mantis shrimp strikes with tremendous speed and force through power amplification.
Self-repairing polymer compositesNatural Process Design, Inc.
Self-repairing composites increase safety, decrease waste
Structures optimize material useplants
Plants maximize strength while reducing materials by incorporating tetrahedral elements that can be stacked in hexagonal containers.
Antlers resist fractureelk
Antlers are strong and resist fracture via complex microstructure.
Skin exhibits low frictionsandfish skink
Skin of the sandfish skink exhibits abrasion resistance and low friction when moving through sand due to proteinaceous scales.
Spines work as shock absorbersWest European hedgehog
The spines of hedgehogs function as shock-absorbers during falls thanks to their honeycomb-like core and longitudinal stiffening.
Scales provide protectionarapaima
The scales of the arapaima combine flexibility with toughness due to a collagen interior and a highly mineralized external layer.
Secretion protects skinhippopotamus
A secretion of the hippopotamus protects its skin from the sun and bacteria thanks to two pigments that absorb UV light and have antibiotic properties.