Strategies prevent biofoulingsoft coral
Soft corals prevent biofouling by releasing metabolites and encouraging populations of certain bacteria.
Multiple component glue aids underwater adhesionbarnacle
The proteinaceous cement substance produced by barnacles allows tenacious underwater attachment due to cooperation of four cement proteins.
Skin resists microorganismspilot whale
The skin of pilot whales resists microorganisms thanks to microscopic pores and nanoridges, surrounded by a secreted enzymatic gel which denatures proteins and carbohydrates.
Coating removes unwanted organismstrees
The leaves of some trees protect from epiphytic freeloaders via sheddable waxy coating.
Biofilm-inhibiting chemical protects surfacesred algae
Red algae protects itself from bacterial infection by exuding compounds that inhibit biofilms.
Peptide defensin fights pathogensanimals
Defensins are naturally produced peptides that inhibit pathogen growth and degrade pathogen toxins by binding to the pathogens
Stabilized bromine protects from bacteriakelp
Red and green algae (kelp) protect from bacteria via stabilized bromine.
Skin prevents biofoulingshark
Skin of sharks prevents micro-organisms from attaching due to surface microstructure
Skin protects from fungusred-backed salamander
Skin of red-backed salamanders protects from pathogenic fungus thanks to resident antifungal microbes.
Surface fends off fungal attacksseaweed
Surface of a tropical seaweed fends off fungal attacks by producing chemical compounds
Slime rapidly expands and protectsHagfish
Glands of the hagfish secrete a concentrated slime that expands rapidly and protects from predators via interacting fibers and water-holding proteins.
Air-trapping coating for ships submarinesCollege of Engineering, Ohio State University
Coating to reduce drag, increase bouyancy