Lichen attach to rocks via a central holdfast (umbilicus).

Edit Hook


"The umbilicus is of vital importance for the Umbilicaria species, since it fastens the thallus to the rock." (Gauslaa 1984:20)

Journal article
Infrared and visible reflectance in different lichen species and its ecological significanceGauslaa, Y.

No link available.
Edit References

Learn More about the living system/s