Sites of two types of secretions (left). Beetles living on fungus (right) Artist: Meghan Hanson || Copyright: All rights reserved by Biomimicry 3.8 Institute.
"Adults of Tritoma bipustulata responded to disturbance by emitting secretion from their pronotal glands. A clear, odourless fluid was released on disturbance; it spread over the pronotum and evaporated rapidly...when considerably disturbed directly at the abdominal tip, a clear, malodorous and highly volatile secretion was discharged from this body region." (Drilling and Dettner 2010: 246)
"The pronotal secretion compounds, benzyl alcohol and benzothiazole, significantly deterred ants from feeding...indole as well as 3-methylindole were detected; both compounds significantly deterred ants from feeding...In agar diffusion tests, almost all tested compounds were significantly antimicrobial... 3-Methylindole, indole, p-cresol and benzothiazole had the strongest effects on the tested microorganisms." (Drilling and Dettner 2010: 247)
"The volatile compounds identified from these defensive devices were shown to deter ants from feeding and to inhibit growth of entomopathogens" (Drilling and Dettner 2010: 248).
"The presence of such malodorous compounds in the abdominal reflex blood might also irritate fungus-feeding mammals, since in European forests many ground squirrels and microtine rodents are extensively mycophagous." (Drilling and Dettner 2010: 251)