Natural ecosystems survive variable conditions, disease emergence, herbivores, predators, and other environmental changes by having adaptive responses.

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“Breeding programmes for new varieties of high yield, wider environmental tolerances or disease resistance can be seen as analogous to the adaptive responses of nature to changing environments, new diseases, herbivores and predators. Similarly introduction and acclimatisation programmes can be seen as mimicking the establishment of colonists and migrants in nature. The subsistence farmer ensures that his crops track nature by retaining his own seed or planting seed of local provenance. The industrial type farmer does not do this.” (Main 1999:33)

Journal article
How much biodiversity is enough?Main, A. R.

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