An industrial partnership where one company's by-products are used as resources for another company.


  • Reduced CO2 emissions
  • Reduced waste
  • Reduced costs


  • City planning
  • Industry

UN Sustainable Development Goals Addressed

  • Goal 11: Sustainable Cities & Communities

  • Goal 12: Responsible Production & Consumption

The Challenge

Companies create waste in the form of energy, materials, and water that can oftentimes be recycled and reused, but are usually discarded. Engaging in partnerships to share waste resources can help to reduce waste and CO2 emissions, as well as overall costs.

Innovation Details

Various processing companies, a waste handling company, and the Municipality of Kalundborg participate in industrial , mutually using each other’s residual or by-products including energy, water, and materials.

Image: Kalundborg Symbiosis / Copyright © - All rights reserved

A diagram of the energy, water, and materials transfer between members of the Kalundborg Symbiosis.

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Biological Model

Symbiosis is an important concept in nature, where two or more organisms engage in a mutually beneficial relationship to the benefit of everyone involved. Symbiosis is an important part of what allows ecosystems to function and thrive.