Bubble nest of foam-nesting frogs protects eggs and young by hardening into a protective casing.

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"Several tropical frogs, known as foam-nesters, also build a nest of bubbles. The mother exudes a fluid and beats it into microscopic bubbles with her hind legs. She then lays her eggs inside, and her mate, who has clung to her back throughout, fertilizes them. As the parents leave, the outer bubbles harden to form a protective case that encloses a foamy core of several thousand eggs. This foam nursery provides shelter from predators, bacteria, and sunlight, as well as preventing dehydration. Because the foam is mostly air it supplies all the embryos' oxygen needs until well after hatching. The nest then disintegrates, and the young emerge from the crowded apartment and, all being well, drop into the water below." (Downer 2002:54)

Weird Nature: An Astonishing Exploration of Nature's Strangest BehaviorMarch 2, 2002
John Downer

Journal article
Foam nest components of the tungara frog: a cocktail of proteins conferring physical and biological resilienceProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesApril 2, 2009
R. I. Fleming, C. D. Mackenzie, A. Cooper, M. W. Kennedy

Journal article
Building a home from foam--tungara frog foam nest architecture and three-phase construction processBiology LettersJanuary 28, 2010
L. Dalgetty, M. W. Kennedy

How to whip up the perfect frothy frog 'meringue' nest

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Guayaquil Dwarf FrogPhysalaemus pustulosusSpecies

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