Journal article
Comparative overwintering physiology of Alaska and Indiana populations of the beetle Cucujus clavipes (Fabricius): roles of antifreeze proteins, polyols, dehydration and diapauseJournal of Experimental BiologyDecember 9, 2005
V. A. Bennett

“Larvae of the freeze-avoiding beetle Cucujus clavipes puniceus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) in Alaska have mean supercooling points in winter of –35 to –42°C, with the lowest super cooling point recorded for an individual of –58°C. We previously noted that some larvae did not freeze when cooled to –80°C, and we speculated that these larvae vitrified. Here we present evidence through differential scanning calorimetry that C. c.puniceus larvae transition into a glass-like state at temperatures <–58°C and can avoid freezing to at least –150°C. This novel finding adds vitrification to the list of insect overwintering strategies. While overwintering beneath the bark of fallen trees, C. c. puniceus larvae may experience low ambient temperatures of around –40°C (and lower) when microhabitatis un-insulated because of low snow cover… Finally, we provide direct evidence that Cucujus from Wiseman, Alaska, survive temperatures to –100°C.” (Sformo et al. 2010:502)

Journal article
Deep supercooling, vitrification and limited survival to –100°C in the Alaskan beetle Cucujus clavipes puniceus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) larvaeSformo T; Walters K; Jeannet K; Wowk B; Fahy GM; Barnes BM; Duman JG

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