The nests of Vespa hornets are made out of a paper substance produced from the mixture of saliva with wood pulp.

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“The powerful mandibles of the hornet are…used to cut and chew wood to make its nest. Wood pulp is mixed with saliva and converted by the hornet into a paper substance from which an elaborate tiered nest is made which may house thousands of individuals.” (Foy and Oxford Scientific Films 1982:159)

The grand design: Form and colour in animalsBLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, LondonDecember 1, 1983
Sally Foy

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