“Seasonal changes in day length enhance or suppress components of immune function in individuals of several mammalian species. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit multiple changes in neuroendocrine, reproductive, and immune function after exposure to short days. The manner in which these changes are integrated into the host response to pathogens is not well understood. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that short-day changes in immune function alter the pathogenesis of septic shock and survival after challenge with endotoxin…In vitro production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in response to LPS stimulation was significantly lower in macrophages extracted from short-day relative to long-day hamsters, as were circulating concentrations of TNFα in vivo after i.p. administration of LPS, suggesting that diminished cytokine responses to LPS in short days may mitigate the lethality of endotoxemia. Adaptation to short days induces changes in immune parameters that affect survival in the face of immune challenges” (Prendergast et al. 2003:51).