The pollen grains of seed plants are protected from dehydration via a hard coat.

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"The gymnosperms, and the flowering plants which evolved more recently, among other, much smaller groups, have developed pollen which carries the male gamete in a form protected from dehydration to special receptive structures in the female part of the flower (pollination)." (Cutler 2005:96)

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Design in plantsWIT PressCutler, DF

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