The secretions of some earthworms distract predators using bioluminescence.


"Dozens of earthworm species from all over the world can secrete a glowing slime, thought to startle predators. This particular worm, Diplocardia longa, is found in sandy soils in southern Georgia in the U.S. and can stretch to over half a meter in lengthIt turns out that chloragocytes—the cells in earthworms that produce the bioluminescent ooze are part of a system that sequesters toxins in the earthworm's body, much like a liver." (Hadhazy 2009)

Web page
Shining Examples: 10 Bioluminescent Creatures that Glow in Surprising Ways Slide Show

Journal article
Earthworm bioluminescence: Characterization of high specific activity Diplocardia longa luciferase and the reaction it catalyzesBiochemistryAugust 3, 2005
Noel G. Rudie, Michael G. Mulkerrin, John E. Wampler

Living System/s

Segmented WormsAnnelidaPhylum