Mangrove forests successfully compete for resources by exhibiting both r-selected (pioneer) and K-selected (competitive) attributes.

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"Succession is part of the normal dynamics of many forest types: the chance appearance of gaps, rapidly colonised by opportunistic 'weeds' which are progressively ousted by slower-growing but more competitive species until a mature forest reappears…Some of the differences and similarities between mangroves and their non-mangrove counterparts are shown in Table 2.4. The comparisons suggest that mangroves resemble (r-selected) pioneer species in their reproductive characteristics, but as adult trees they behave more as mature-phase competitive (K-selected) species. This observation, that mangroves contrive to have their cake and eat it (Tomlinson 1986) should prove a fruitful insight into the dynamics of mangrove forests." (Hogarth 1999:45)

The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses (Biology of Habitats Series)Oxford University PressMay 31, 2007
Peter Hogarth

The Botany of Mangroves (Cambridge Tropical Biology Series)Cambridge University PressMarch 31, 1995
P. B. Tomlinson

Book section
Forest structure p 101-136 In Tropical mangrove ecosystems. Coastal and estuarine studies no. 4.American Geophysical UnionSmith, TJ

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