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"Succession is part of the normal dynamics of many forest types: the chance appearance of gaps, rapidly colonised by opportunistic 'weeds' which are progressively ousted by slower-growing but more competitive species until a mature forest reappears…Some of the differences and similarities between mangroves and their non-mangrove counterparts are shown in Table 2.4. The comparisons suggest that mangroves resemble (r-selected) pioneer species in their reproductive characteristics, but as adult trees they behave more as mature-phase competitive (K-selected) species. This observation, that mangroves contrive to have their cake and eat it (Tomlinson 1986) should prove a fruitful insight into the dynamics of mangrove forests." (Hogarth 1999:45)
The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses (Biology of Habitats Series)Oxford University PressMay 31, 2007
The Botany of Mangroves (Cambridge Tropical Biology Series)Cambridge University PressMarch 31, 1995
Forest structure p 101-136 In Tropical mangrove ecosystems. Coastal and estuarine studies no. 4.American Geophysical Union
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