The skin of pilot whales resists microorganisms thanks to microscopic pores and nanoridges, surrounded by a secreted enzymatic gel which denatures proteins and carbohydrates.

"Christoph Baum and a team from the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine in Germany have discovered that a pilot whale's skin has a specialised nano-structure that stops the build-up of microscopic organisms such as barnacle larvae. They plan to mimic the idea in an anti-fouling paint. Baum and his team examined freeze-dried samples of pilot whale skin under a cryo-scanning electron microscope. They discovered a surface made up of tiny pores 0.1 micrometres across surrounded by raised 'nanoridges'. In between the ridges is a rubber-like gel containing enzymes that denature proteins and carbohydrates. The gel, which oozes out of the gaps between skin cells, is replenished as the whale sheds its skin. Baum thinks that organisms such as bacteria and diatoms have trouble sticking to the ridge edges, which provide little purchase. And if they try hanging onto the gel the enzymes will attack them. Without these pioneers, larger creatures such as crustacean or mollusc larvae have a hard time colonising the whale's skin. The group intends to patent a version of the pilot whale's skin as a more eco-friendly alternative to existing anti-fouling paints. To copy the skin, Baum plans on using a variety of biodegradable materials." (Courtesy of the Biomimicry Guild)


"On the skin surface of delphinids small biofoulers are challenged to high shear water flow and liquid–vapor interfaces of air-bubbles during jumping. This state of self-cleaning is supported by the even, nano-rough gel-coated epidermal surface of the skin. The present study focussed on the intercellular evolution of gel formation and the chemical composition of the gel smoothing the skin surface of the pilot whale, Globicephala melas…In the superficial layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, intercellular material was shown…to assemble from smaller into larger covalently cross-linked aggregates during the transit of the corneocytes towards the skin surface. XPS measurements showed that the surface of the skin and the intercellular gel included approximately the same amounts of polar groups (especially, free amines and amides) and non-polar groups, corresponding to the presence of lipid droplets dispersed within the jelly material. It was concluded from the results that the gel-coat of the skin surface is a chemically heterogeneous skin product. The advantages of chemically heterogeneous patches contributing to the ablation of traces of the biofouling process are discussed." (Baum et al. 2003:181)

Design and Nature V: Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering (WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment)February 6, 2010
C. A. Brebbia

Physiology of Rubber Tree Latex The Laticiferous Cell and Latex- A Modell of CytoplasmMarch 30, 2017
Jean d'Auzac

Journal article
Surface properties of the skin of the pilot whale Globicephala melasBaum C; Simon F; Meyer W; Fleischer L-G; Siebers D; Kacza J; Seeger J

Journal article
Average nanorough skin surface of the pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Delphinidae): considerations on the self-cleaning abilities based on nanoroughnessBaum C; Meyer W; Stelzer R; Fleischer L-G; Siebers

Living System/s

Pará Rubber TreeHevea brasiliensisSpecies