Cytoplasm of slime molds creates efficient connective networks using adaptive foraging strategies.

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The slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, is an extremely effective forager capable of creating extensive and highly efficient networks between food sources. This single-celled creature, classified as a protist, oozes its way across surfaces in search of bacteria, fungal spores, and other microbes to feed on. As it spreads and grows in search of food, it naturally organizes itself into a network of tube-like structures that quickly and efficiently connect its disparate food sources.

Physarum maximizes its ability to find food by ‘remembering’ and strengthening the portions of its cytoplasm that connect to active food sources. By rhythmically contracting and expanding its body, Physarum is able to move and grow its body in search of food. When it fails to find food or the food source dries up, Physarum retracts its cytoplasm, leaving behind a trail of slime–essentially marking which pathways are useful and which are dead-ends.

By trimming back connections and maintaining only active pathways, Physarum uses the least amount of resources and energy possible while still creating a resilient and fault-tolerant system. Links between food sources are made covering the shortest possible distances, but are connected in such a way that a disruption in one area does not impact the overall health or efficiency of the slime mold’s network.

Watch how Physarum’s foraging skills can help self-driving cars:

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This summary was contributed by Emily Hoehn.

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Journal article
Rules for Biologically Inspired Adaptive Network DesignScienceJanuary 21, 2010
A. Tero, S. Takagi, T. Saigusa, K. Ito, D. P. Bebber, M. D. Fricker, K. Yumiki, R. Kobayashi, T. Nakagaki

“By lying only in the shortest route between two food sources, the plasmodium can deliver much of its own body to the food sources, so that the intake of the nutrient is more efficient. Moreover, since the tube is a channel of protoplasmic streaming, the shortest tube leads to efficient transport of protoplasm.” (Nakagaki 2001:769)

Journal article
Smart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinthResearch MicrobiologyNovember 1, 2001
Toshiyuki Nakagaki

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Many-headed SlimePhysarum polycephalumSpecies

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