The scales of garpike provide protection via hard ganoin covering and lattice arrangement.

“Fish scales come in a variety of styles. A few very primitive fish, including garpikes, have ganoid scales, diamond-shaped and forming a lattice pattern (diagram a). They are covered with a hard, shiny material called ganoin. Such scales were characteristic of many prehistoric fishes, loading them with cumbersome, inflexible armour plating.” (Foy and Oxford Scientific Films 1982:86)

Foy S, Oxford Scientific Films. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London; 1982. 238 p.

Last Updated August 18, 2016